“…humans are very noun-centric. We name everything. Dogs, however, may have very little use of nouns. Instead, they may be verb- or action-centric. So, when they hear “ball” they may actually think, “get ball.” Because dogs do not have the neural real estate for language processing, it is imperative that humans use their words concisely and consistently for dogs to understand them. Speak the dog’s name, followed by a one or two-word cue. Anything more than that is a distraction and will only serve to slow down learning.” – Dr. Gregory Berns. read article .